WOMEN IN INTERNATIONAL SECURITY ROMANIA – BUILDING A MORE PEACEFUL AND SAFER WORLD
Resolution 1325 (Women, Peace and Security) was adopted unanimously by the United Nations in October 2000 and its implementation in every country is strongly supported by the UN, NATO, EU and OSCE.
Clare Hutchinson – NATO Secretary General’s Special Representative for Women, Peace and Security- explains NATO`s commitment to gender equality. NATO’s approach to the Women, Peace and Security agenda is framed around three principles: integration, inclusiveness and integrity.
More about UNSCR 1325 (Women, Peace and Security)
What is UNSCR 1325 and why is highly important?
The United States Institute of Peace offers a comprehensive explanation of the landmark Resolution on Women, Peace and Security and its pillars.
According to USIP, “Resolution 1325 addresses two critical issues—the inordinate impact of violent conflict and war on women and girls, as well as the crucial role that women should, and already do play in conflict prevention and peacebuilding. Women’s full participation and involvement is important to every aspect of achieving and sustaining peace and stability within a community. The Resolution urges all actors to increase the participation of women and additionally incorporate gender perspectives in all United Nations peace and security efforts. Parties engaged in conflict must take special measures to protect women and girls from all forms of gender-based violence, especially rape and other forms of sexual violence that are particularly widespread during times of violent conflict.” Resolution 1325 was the first to address the issue of women’s inclusion in peace and security matters.
Each of the resolution’s mandates is related to one of the four basic pillars: Participation, Protection, Prevention, and Relief and Recovery (USIP presentation below):
- Participation: Calls for increased participation of women at all levels of decision-making, including in national, regional, and international institutions; in mechanisms for the prevention, management and resolution of conflict; in peace negotiations; in peace operations, as soldiers, police, and civilians; and as Special Representatives of the U.N. Secretary-General.
Read more about the importance of women’s participation in peacebuilding
- Protection: Calls specifically for the protection of women and girls from sexual and gender-based violence, including in emergency and humanitarian situations, such as in refugee camps.
Read more about protections against sexual and gender-based violence
- Prevention: Calls for improving intervention strategies in the prevention of violence against women, including by prosecuting those responsible for violations of international law; strengthening women’s rights under national law; and supporting local women’s peace initiatives and conflict resolution processes.
Read more about gendered approaches to reducing fragility; read more about preventing sexual exploitation and abuse
- Relief and recovery: Calls for advancement of relief and recovery measures to address international crises through a gendered lens, including by respecting the civilian and humanitarian nature of refugee camps, and considering the needs of women and girls in the design of refugee camps and settlements.
Read more about addressing sexual exploitation and abuse by international interveners
For more details on UNSCR 1325 see USIP – What is UNSCR 1325? Explanation of the Landmark Resolution on Women, Peace and Security.
How is the Resolution 1325 implemented worldwide?
Since 2005, U.N. Member States have put the Resolution into action through the development of government-led National Action Plans (NAP) or other national level strategies. National Action Plan (NAP) is the major mean for all the UN member states to translate the international commitments on Women, Peace and Security into national policies and programs.
What is the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) Agenda?
The women, peace and security (WPS) agenda consists of ten United Nations Security Council Resolutions (1325, 1820, 1888, 1889, 1960, 2106, 2122, 2422, 2467 and 2493) that infuse a gender perspective into different peace and security forums. These Resolutions recognize the importance of women’s full and equal representation and participation in peace and security process at all levels. They also call for special measures to protect women and girls from gender-based violence in situations of armed conflict. The foundational resolution of the WPS agenda is the UN Security Council Resolution 1325. See SIPRI: https://www.sipri.org/yearbook/2016/08
What are the ten United Nations Security Council Resolution that form WPS Agenda about?
- Resolution 1325 (2000) [S/RES/1325 (2000)] – Affirms the importance of the participation of women and the inclusion of gender perspectives in peace negotiations, humanitarian planning, peacekeeping operations, and post-conflict peacebuilding and governance.
- Resolution 1820 (2008) [S/RES/1820(2008)] – Recognizes sexual violence as a tactic of war and a matter of international peace and security that necessitates a security response.
- Resolution 1888 (2009) [S/RES/1888(2009)] – Strengthens efforts to end sexual violence in conflict by establishing a Special Representative of the Secretary-General and team of experts on rule of law and sexual violence in conflict.
- Resolution 1889 (2009) [S/RES/1889(2009)] – Establishes indicators for the monitoring of resolution 1325 and requests the Secretary-General to submit a report on women’s participation and inclusion in peacebuilding.
- Resolution 1960 (2010) [S/RES/1960(2010)] – Establishes a monitoring and reporting mechanism on sexual violence in conflict.
- Resolution 2106 (2013) [S/RES/2106(2013)] – Stresses accountability for perpetrators of sexual violence in conflict, as well as women’s political and economic empowerment.
- Resolution 2122 (2013) [S/RES/2122(2013)] – Positions gender equality and women’s empowerment as critical to international peace and security, recognizes the differential impact of all violations in conflict on women and girls, and calls for consistent application of WPS across the Security Council’s work.
- Resolution 2242 (2015) [S/RES/2242(2015)] – Establishes the Informal Experts Group (IEG); addresses persistent obstacles in implementing the WPS agenda, including financing and institutional reforms; focuses on greater integration of the agendas on WPS and counter-terrorism and countering violent extremism; and calls for improved Security Council working methods on women, peace, and security.
- Resolution 2467 (2019) [S/RES/2467(2019)] – Positions conflict-related sexual violence as firmly rooted in the broader women, peace and security agenda; stresses justice and accountability efforts; calls for support and protection to women’s civil society organizations; and calls for attention to the issues of children born of rape.
- Resolution 2493 (2019) [S/RES/2493(2019)] – Calls for full implementation of all previous resolutions on women, peace and security; requests the UN to develop context-specific approaches for women’s participation in all UN-supported peace processes; and urges Member States to ensure and provide timely support for the full, equal, and meaningful participation of women in all stages of peace processes, including in the mechanisms set up to implement and monitor peace agreements.
For more details on WPS Agenda visit UNWOMEN
NATO and WPS Agenda
For its military institutions, NATO/Allied Command Operations developed practical guidelines for the implementation of UNSCR 1325 in military operations under Bi-Strategic Command Directive 40-1 (Bi-SCD 40-1), which was first published in 2009 and revised in 2012.12 and 2017.10. NATO also created Gender Advisor (GENAD) positions at Headquarters as well as in the field, most notably in Afghanistan and Kosovo.
At the 2014 Wales Summit Meeting, the Heads of State and Government of the North Atlantic Council (NAC) acknowledged that the integration of “gender perspectives into Alliance activities throughout NATO’s three core tasks (i.e., Collective Defence, Crisis Management, and Cooperative Security) will contribute to a more modern, ready and responsive NATO.”
In 2019, NATO adopted its first policy on Preventing and Responding to Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in support of its work on WPS.
NATO’s work on WPS is guided by three principles: integration, inclusiveness and integrity.
Integration: gender equality must be considered as an integral part of NATO policies, programmes and projects guided by effective gender mainstreaming practices. To achieve gender equality, it must be acknowledged that each policy, programme, and project affects both women and men.
Inclusiveness: representation of women across NATO and in national forces is necessary to enhance operational effectiveness and success. NATO will seek to increase the participation of women in all tasks throughout the International Military Staff and International Staff at all levels.
Integrity: systemic inequalities are addressed to ensure fair and equal treatment of women and men Alliance-wide. Accountability on all efforts to increase awareness and implementation of the WPS agenda will be made a priority in accordance with international frameworks.
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